• Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt, en 1933.


    Franklin D. Roosevelt was famous as the thirty-second President of the United States of America and the only President to serve more then two terms. He led the nation out of the Great Depression and towards victory in World War II. He was born on January 30, 1882 in New York. And died on April 12, 1945 in Georgia. His life was full of actions, in 1933 he became for the first time president of the USA and stayed president until is death : 1945. He'll stay in the memory of all the american as the winner of  the second world war. He did lots of things for his country to make it go out of the crises, before is election, 12 millions americans were unemployed and 2 million didn't even had a house. America was also a isolationist country who didn't want to take part in the second world war but he still prepared america to war a give lots of materiel to england to help them defend themself against the German. To recapitulate his life I would say that he's one of the greatest president that USA ever had, he make them winn the war and make usa go out of the crises.


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  • John Quincy Adams

    John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) ,was elected for a term from 1825 to 1829.

    John Quincy Adams , sixth president of the United States was born in Braintree in Massachussetts in 1767.

    He studied at Havard University and then became a lawyer at the age of 26 years.

    He was appointed ambassador to the Netherlands in 1794 , with Portugal in 1796 and Prussia in 1797.

    Elected to the Massachussetts Senate in 1802 , it will

    also be in the Senate of the United States where he served from 1803 to 1808 to the Federalist Party. He left the training to integrate the Democratic Republican party. He is a member of  the comission that negociated the Treaty of Ghent in 1814 , and Minister of foreign Affairs in the cabinet of President James Monroe between 1817 and 1825.

    November 2, 1824 presidential election was the first where popular votes were aggregated to the national level. John Quincy Adams came in second behind General Jackson. It alsogets the best score for the vote of the Electoral College , but because of the presence of three other candidates , he does not get a majority. This is the House of Representatives , to general surprise, finally vote on December 1 in favor of Adams.

    John Quincy Adams continued his political career after 1828 : first the anti-Masonic Party and the Whig Party , which he helped found to 1833-1834. Electe to the House of Representatives in 1831 , he remained there until his death , February 23, 1848. He also ran for the governorship of Massachussetts in 1834 but can not get it. In 1841, he defended the case of African Spanish ship La Amistad which took control when they were transported as slaves illegal before the Supreme Court.

    Threatened with deportation to Spain , they will enventually be released.

    In 1848 , he collapsed on the floor of the House a stroke and was carried to the Room of the Presidency , where two days later he died. He was buried : just like his father , his mother and his wife.


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  • Jimmy Carter, the 39th President of the United States of America

    Born on October 1, 1924, in Plains, Georgia, Jimmy Carter was the 39th president of the United States (1977-81).
    In 1962, he was elected Governor of Georgia. He attracted attention by emphasizing ecology, efficiency in government, and the removal of racial barriers.
    Carter announced his candidacy for President in December 1974 and began a two-year campaign that gradually gained momentum. Carter campaigned hard against President Gerald R. Ford, debating with him three times. In 1977, he become the 39th president of the United States with 297 electoral votes for him, to 241 for Ford.
    In 1978, he helped bring amity between Egypt and Israel. He succeeded in obtaining ratification of the Panama Canal treaties.
    In November 1979, radical Iranian students seized the United States Embassy in Tehran, taking 66 Americans hostage. The negociations were very difficult. The hostages were held for 444 days before finally being released on the day Carter left office.
    The next president is the former actor, Ronald Reagan.
    Jimmy Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.

                                                                                                                        Alexis Meillan

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    John Tyler, the 10th President of the United States


    John Tyler was born in 1790, the 29th March in Virginia. He's the son of a couple of farmers who directed Greenway plantation. We have to know that Tyler was a fragile child because he was thin and victim of many deseases, and this is why he dead in 1862. He was a very good student and did very good studies in the College of William and Mary. Few at few, he becames an important man for the United States: He was a legislator, governor, representant, senator in 1841, and to finih, he becomes the 10th president of United States the 4th Avril 1841 until March 1845.

    Because of diseases during his life, Tyler John dead the January 18th 1862.

    BONUS: Particularity of this President ? He has his 2 grown sons again in live today, they have 81 and 90 years old. It's the first and old president who has his grown sons again in live !

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    William McKinley

    William Mc Kinkey was born in 1843 in Ohio. He started the American Civil War as a private in the Union Army and in 1876 was elected to Congress and also became a Republican specialist of Protectionist customs duties which according to him would bring the prosperity. He married the jurist Ida Saxton and  was elected 25th president of the United States of America in 1827.

    He proposed a strong increase of the customs duties by the McKinley Tariff what was very criticized and the big discussion in the democratic gerrymandering will cost him his seat during the elections of 1890. 
    He was elected at the post of governor of Ohio in 1891 and in 1893 when he tried to balance the interests of the capital and those of the workers.
    By means of his close councillor Marcus Hanna, he gets the republican appointment for the presidential election of 1896 with as main stake: the economic crisis. And the period of presidency of McKinley was marked by a very fast economic growth.
    He also defends Dingley Act of 1897 intended to protect the American industries of the foreign competition.
    McKinley tried to persuade Spain to gran the independence of Cuba during the revolution but after the collapse of the negotiations, it led the United States in the Spanish-American war.

    The American victory was fast and decisive and in the treaty of Paris of 1898, Spain transferred the control of its colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines in the United States. McKinley was reelected on 1900 and murdered only one year later in 1901 by an anarchist. It is his vice-president Theodore Roosevelt who succeeded him.

    The historians consider the victory of McKinley in 1896 as a turning point of the American politics which marked the beginning of the progressive era dominated by the republican party.


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  •          James Monroe (the last hocked hat/era of good feelings of )


    "The public lands are a public stock, which ought to be disposed of to the best advantage for the nation."

           James Monroe was born on April 28 1758 in Wesmoreland in Virginia, he became the fifth president of United States in 1817 and was reelected in 1821 just after his first mandate. He is considered as a founding father of the United States  thanks to his "Monroe doctrine" and the last American president of "virginia dinasty" 

         He succeeds James Madison and precedes John Quincy Adams. He is not the most famous president ,but we know him thanks to his "Monroe doctrine " when he proclams that United States doesn't need of european colonies. James Monroe died there from heart failure and tuberculosis the July 4, 1831 in New York at the age of 73 years. He is the third president died on July 4, Independence Day in the United States.



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    Lyndon  Johnson

    Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, in central Texas, not far from Johnson City, which his family had helped settle. He felt the pinch of rural poverty as he grew up, working his way through Southwest Texas State Teachers College (now known as Texas State University-San Marcos); he learned compassion for the poverty of others when he taught students of Mexican descent.

    In 1937 he campaigned successfully for the House of Representatives on a New Deal platform, effectively aided by his wife, the former Claudia "Lady Bird" Taylor, whom he had married in 1934.


    During World War II he served briefly in the Navy as a lieutenant commander, winning a Silver Star in the South Pacific. After six terms in the House, Johnson was elected to the Senate in 1948. In 1953, he became the youngest Minority Leader in Senate history, and the following year, when the Democrats won control, Majority Leader. With rare skill he obtained passage of a number of key Eisenhower measures.

    In the 1960 campaign, Johnson, as John F. Kennedy's running mate, was elected Vice President. On November 22, 1963, when Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson was sworn in as President.

    First he obtained enactment of the measures President Kennedy had been urging at the time of his death--a new civil rights bill and a tax cut. Next he urged the Nation "to build a great society, a place where the meaning of man's life matches the marvels of man's labor." In 1964, Johnson won the Presidency with 61 percent of the vote and had the widest popular margin in American history--more than 15,000,000 votes.


    Lyndon  Johnson

    The other crisis arose from Viet Nam. Despite Johnson's efforts to end Communist aggression and achieve a settlement, fighting continued. Controversy over the war had become acute by the end of March 1968, when he limited the bombing of North Viet Nam in order to initiate negotiations. At the same time, he startled the world by withdrawing as a candidate for re-election so that he might devote his full efforts, unimpeded by politics, to the quest for peace.


    When he left office, peace talks were under way; he did not live to see them successful, but died suddenly of a heart attack at his Texas ranch on January 22, 1973.



    Lyndon  Johnson


    Did you know? 


    ·         President Lyndon Johnson signed Medicare law in 1965—providing millions of elderly healthcare stability. President Obama’s historic health care reform law, the Affordable Care Actstrengthens Medicare, offers eligible seniors a range of preventive services with no cost-sharing, and provides discounts on drugs when in the coverage gap known as the “donut hole.”


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    Grover Cleveland ("Big Steve" , "Uncle Jumbo")

          Grover Cleveland was born Stephen Grover Cleveland in 1837 In New Jersey and died in 1908 In Princeton. He had five children with Francis Folsom. Before being the 22nd and 24th president of the United State of America, he was a lawyer. He was the first democrat elected after the Civil war. At 44, he emerged into a political prominence that carried him to the White House in three years. Running as a reformer, he was elected Mayor of Buffalo in 1881, and later, Governor of New York.

          He earned the nickname “Guardian President” after being elected four years later after his first term. He was uncumfortable in the White House especially as a bachelor but finally, he makes Frances Folsom america's youngest first lady at 21. It was the first time that a wedding happen in the White house. Three of their children were born there.


         He died of a heart attack in Princeton. His children were away but his wife stay by his side. An unusual aspect of his legacy: A body part of Grover Cleveland’s resides at the Mutter Museum in Philadelphia. It is his “secret tumor,” an epithelioma removed from the roof of his mouth during his second term.




    "A truly American sentiment recognizes the dignity of labor and the fact that honor lies in honest toil”

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  • Martin Van Buren


    Marin Von Buren  was born in december 5th 1782 in Kindehook and died in july 24th 1882 in the state of New York.

    Van Buren was son of a tavernkeeper and a farmer. He was a very important man for the United State of America. He firstly was the tenth Secretary of State (1829-1831), then the eight Vice President (1833-1837) and finally the eight President of the United State of America (1837-1841).Van Buren has not British or Scot Irish descents : he was Dutch and his first language was also not English but Ducth.

    Van Buren started to be in politics since he was 17 years old. He always was a democrat .

    When he became president he had to deal with the "Panic of 1837", a financial crisis followed by five years of economic depression. Van Buren advocate lower tariffs and free trade to fix the situation.

    In the case of the famous boat Amistad, Van Buren asked to the Spanish government to return the kidnapped slaves. 

    He voted against the admission of Missouri as a slave state and was nominated to be president of the Free Soil Party , an anti-slavery political party. So, he was clearly an abolitionist.

    His entire political life was based on the struggle against economic crisis and slavery. One of his most well-known adversary was John Calhoun, who was candidate for the presidential election and in favor of slavery. About the economic aspect of his political lif, Martin Van Buren thought that the crisis was due to a "recklessness in business and overexpansion of credits". So he fought for the creation of an independent treasury system to deal with the government transactions and he was opposed to the creation of a new Bank of the United State.

    Martin Van Buren was finally defeated by the Whigs in 1840 for reelection, and was not elected to be president of the Free Oil Party in 1848.

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  • John Calvin Coolidge, Jr., (in July 4th, 1872 - January 5th, 1933) was the 30th president of the United States. Native of Vermont, Coolidge climbs up the ladder of the politics in the Massachusetts of which he became finally the republican governor. His actions during the strike of the police of Boston  in 1919 propelled him on the national stage. He was afterward elected a vice-president in 1920 then he reached the presidency after the Warren's sudden death G. Harding in 1923. He was reelected in 1924 and gained  a reputation of preservative and taciturn man.

    He rapidly became popular. In 1924, as the beneficiary of what was becoming known as "Coolidge prosperity," he polled more than 54 percent of the popular vote. As President, Coolidge demonstrated his determination to preserve the old moral and economic precepts amid the material prosperity which many Americans were enjoying. He refused to use Federal economic power to check the growing boom or to ameliorate the depressed condition of agriculture and certain industries 

    The nomination of Coolidge in 1925 was the first one(night) to be broadcast on the radio as well as its State of the Union Address of December 6th 1923142. He(it) signed Radio Act of 1927 which assigned the regulation of the radio to new Federal Radio Commission. On August 11th, 1924, Lee De Forest filmed Coolidge in the gardens of the White House with a phonofilm; he so was the first American president to appear on a sound called movie President Coolidge, Taken one the White House Grounds143. Coolidge was the only president to have been represented in his/her lifetime on a coin

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